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Frequently Asked Questions: Get definitive answers with DNA testing

WHEN MAY TESTING BE PERFORMED?
There are no age restrictions because DNA makeup is determined at conception. Testing is possible even before birth, and newborns may be tested safely at delivery using umbilical cord blood. Samples may be taken from persons of any age, even post mortem. Our lab's combined technologies are so powerful that the genetic patterns of a deceased father may be reconstructed using a grandparentage DNA test, siblings DNA test or other children.

DNA Paternity TestHOW ACCURATE IS DNA TESTING?
DNA testing is the most conclusive and widely accepted method for testing biological relationships. Paternity Express testing  lab is one of the few laboratories to offer both PCR and RFLP technologies; therefore, we can provide the most accurate, definitive results in the industry. We routinely provide results with a probability of 99.999% or greater for inclusion and 100% for exclusion. Paternity Express testing lab's Legal Reports are accepted in U.S. Courts and most courts worldwide. Paternity Express test results are routinely 10 to 1,000 times more accurate than the guidelines required by the courts as proof of parentage.

CAN PATERNITY TESTS BE PERFORMED WITHOUT THE MOTHER?
Yes. When the mother's participation is not possible, we can perform a "motherless DNA Paternity Test" at no additional charge. A motherless paternity test requires more extensive analysis to produce conclusive results, but the results are just as accurate as those of a standard paternity test. There are certain situations when the mother's sample is mandatory e.g., by court order. Mother's participation aids in the analysis of unexpected results such as when a mutation (random change in the DNA) occurs which affects the results

WHAT IS A PRIVATE TEST?
The private DNA paternity test is a quick, economical solution that is perfect for families seeking the truth regarding paternity for personal reasons. Paternity Express lab will send you a kit with specific instructions for collection, however, because you collect your own samples, the lab cannot attest to the unbroken chain of custody. The private test is processed in the same manner as a Legal DNA Paternity Test and results are just as conclusive


DNA Paternity TestWHAT IS A LEGAL TEST?
Legal DNA paternity tests are conclusive, legally binding tests that use DNA to determine whether an alleged father is indeed the biological father of the donor child. The primary difference between a Legal Paternity Test and a Private Paternity Test is the chain of custody - a process used to document and safeguard collection of the donors' samples, which are collected by a neutral third party, such as a laboratory, doctor, clinic or trained collection specialist who must attest to the collection of each sample. Each donor is positively identified through photographs, thumb-print and government issued photo identification and because of the chain of custody results are admissible in most courts of law worldwide and acceptable to government agencies.

WHO MAY USE DNA PARENTAGE TESTING?
. A man who is really wondering if he really fathered a child;
. Someone wanting closure or peace of mind regarding his/her paternity;
. A woman seeking child support from a man who denies he fathered her child;
. A parent going through a divorce;
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. A person seeking to establish Social Security benefits, inheritance rights or Native American tribal rights;
. A person seeking to immigrate to the U.S. claiming to be a blood relative of a sponsoring citizen status;
. Someone wanting to identify biological grandparents or siblings;
. Those who have had inconclusive results from other methods or who simply want a "second opinion."

HOW DO I GET A PATERNITY TEST?
You may use Paternity Express onlineorder form or ring us 1-888-312-4362 to order a DNA Paternity Test and speak with one of our knowledgeable case manager who will evaluate your specific needs and recommend the best DNA test which will answer your paternity questions. When you are ready to proceed, they will arrange a sample collection appointment that is convenient for you.

DNA Paternity TestHOW LONG DOES A DNA TEST TAKE?
Typically, the DNA Paternity test is completed and results are available to clients 2 to 3 working days following receipt of donor samples; however, other types of DNA testing may require additional time for analyses. If desired, or when clients requested, 24-Hour testing is available at an additional cost.

DNA Paternity TestIS OFFICIAL PERMISSION NECESSARY?
No special permission is necessary to order DNA testing. The client need only complete Paternity Express request for information or ring us 1-888-312-4362 to schedule a DNA test. Currently, the only exception is New York State where the New York State Department of Health (NYDOH) permits laboratories to examine specimens at the express request of a licensed physician or other person legally authorized to make such requests and where the results are necessary in the performance of their duties. Please ring us 1-888-312-4362 for additional information if you are a New York State resident


DNA Paternity TestIS THE SAMPLE COLLECTION PROCESS PAINFUL?
Samples may be collected using the painless buccal swab method. Although samples may also be obtained from blood, (as well as other samples, such as hair, fingernails, forensic samples) it is less traumatic especially to children if the painless buccal swab method is used.

DO DONORS HAVE TO GO TO SAMPLE COLLECTION APPOINTMENT TOGETHER?
No. Because we have a global network of sample collection centres and mobile technicians, we can coordinate sample collection from the donor participant wherever in the world they reside and appointments do not have to be done on the same day, time or locale.

DNA Paternity TestIS MY PERSONAL INFORMATION KEPT CONFIDENTAL?
Yes. Paternity Express personnel will release no information unless there is a signed release executed by the donor participant. If you wish your information divulged to anyone, including attorneys, doctors or any government agency, an express, written and executed permission must be given to the lab or we will release nothing.

WHEN A FATHER IS MISSING OR DECEASED IS A PATERNITY TEST POSSIBLE?
Yes. When the alleged father is unavailable, missing or deceased, there are several other options available. One's first option should be a Viability Test on sample, such as stored blood or a tissue sample taken from the deceased alleged father. This sample may be obtained from a hospital, a coroner's or medical examiner's office. If usable DNA is found in the sample, a DNA paternity test using those samples as the alleged father's sample may be performed. When no samples from the alleged father are available then a, Grand Parentage Test is another way to proceed. Both biological parents of an alleged father (paternal grandparents) should participate in a Grand Parentage test which results establish the relationship of the tested child to the donor grandparents; however, most government offices treat these results as indirect evidence of paternity. When one or both paternal grandparents are unavailable for testing, other family relationship tests - e.g., genetic reconstruction, an avuncular DNA test, and/or siblingship test or other DNA test -may be performed to indirectly determine a child's paternity. You may ring Paternity Express 1-800-312-4362 and speak with one of our knowledgeable case managers about your unique case or simply complete the request for information form.

DNA Paternity TestDURING PREGNANCY, MAY I DO A PATERNITY TEST?
Yes. A prenatal paternity test may be performed if the mother's OB-GYN collects a DNA sample from the developing fetus through either chorionic villi sampling (10-13 weeks) or amniocentesis (14-24 weeks). The baby's prenatal sample is then compared against the mother's and alleged father's DNA samples, which should be collected using the standard buccal swab method. However, when the mother is more than 24weekspregnant, she must wait until the baby is born to do a DNA paternity test. A newborn baby's samples may be collected using the buccal method any time after birth, and a paternity test can be started immediately after the delivery. If you wish to schedule a paternity test during pregnancy, our helpful case managers stand ready to assist you. Please ring Paternity Express 1-888-312-4362 for a case manager to assist with your special needs or complete the on-line request for information.

ARE DNA TESTS COVERED BY HEALTH INSURANCE OR MEDICAID/MEDICARE?
No. DNA tests are not classified as medically necessary procedures; so neither your health insurance nor Medicaid/Medicare will pay for DNA tests of any sort.


DNA Paternity Test HOW ARE MY RESULTS DELIVERED?
Reports are mailed to each donor participant or guardian of a minor donor child or mentally challenged donor at the address he/she provides at the sample collection appointment; however, with express written, and executed permission, we will fax or e-mail a copy of the report to a donor participant and/or their designate.
DNA Paternity Test

DNA Paternity TestHOW / WHEN IS PAYMENT DUE?
Payment for your DNA test may be made by any major credit card: Visa, MasterCard, Discover, American Express and Diners' Club. You may make a non-refundable deposit of $150, and we will schedule an appointment for sample collection, collect the samples and send them to Paternity Express labs which will process and prepare your report. Please be aware that Paternity Express labs will release results only after payment has been received in full.

DO YOU HAVE PAYMENT PLANS?
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We believe everyone should have the best DNA testing services readily accessible and affordable to them; so we offer flexible payment plans to individuals who need time to pay for their tests. To have a standard paternity test started, we only require a non-refundable partial payment of $150. From there, we work with you to accommodate your payment needs. Please note that test results can only be released once the balance is paid in full. Call us to discuss your payment options. Our helpful case managers await your call to Paternity Express 1-888-312-4362 or complete our on-line request for information form. WE NOW OFFER THE NON INVASIVE PRENATAL DNA TEST
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Our "Testing Labs" are certified by The American Association of Blood Banks, the United States Department of Health and Human Services, CLIA, and the New York State Department of Health footer